Kolosova O.V., Surina A.V., Tukkel J.L., Falkov D.S.
Russia, St.-Petersburg, St.-Petersburg State Technical University, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIONS: THE PROBLEMS AND THE TOOLKIT
In this article the review of the existing on the present moment methods of the innovation processes modeling at the modem enterprises and tool means for their realization is submitted. Also the integrated multifunctional program mean ReThink, and the implementation of the indistinct antonyms logic for automation of the decisions making systems for the most efficient management process are described in more detail.
Колосова О.В., Сурина А.В., Туккель И.Л., Фальков Д.С.
Россия, Санкт-Петербург, Санкт-Петербургский государственный технический
университет, e-mail: email@example.com
УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ИННОВАЦИЯМИ: ПРОБЛЕМЫ И ИНСТРУМЕНТАРИЙ
В данной статье представлен обзор существующих на настоящий момент методов моделирования инновационных процессов на современных предприятиях и инструментальных средств для их реализации. Более подробно описана интегрированное многофункциональное средство ReThink, а также использование нечеткой логики антонимов для автоматизации системы принятия решений.
The management of the modem enterprise requires the increasing efficiency. During the fast changes in the market, shorter cycle of the production manipulation and services, variability of consumer demand the integrated approach of information base of the operative and strategic decisions making and control above their performance is important. By this way use of modem methods of collection, processing, storage, analysis, and representation of the information for preparation of the administrative decisions is one of the major levers of business development.
From the information point of view a core is the system of decisions making support (SDMS) - original superstructure above operative information systems used at the enterprise. The purpose of the SDMS development and implementation is the information support of operative opportunities and comfortable conditions for a top management and senior experts for the reasonable decisions making, appropriated for the goal of enterprise, and also its strategic and tactical purposes.
The maintenance of methodical and information support of the decisions making system development according the key financial and economic questions for a top management and a middle level managers of the enterprise is very important. It means use on a constant basis of methods of forecasting, monitoring, analysis both updating of activity of the enterprise and its divisions, and also condition of the markets and a competition.
Each company is a complex system, varied in time. Usually the company unites various categories of the people, cooperating with it. For example, the shareholders receive one model of the description of the company, trade personnel - another, clients - the third. These models will be not quite coordinated between its, as their development in the majority of the companies nobody coordinates. To use the potential of company more full, it is necessary to concentrate attention on such aspects, which require training, specifications, improvement, change.
One of the most important models is the model of business, which help to clear up the functions of the company in the external world. It shows, which is an environment of the company and how the company cooperates with this environment. The model should represent architecture, i.e. static structures of the company, but also the various flows of events, i.e. dynamic behavior of elements of architecture. The techniques of modeling should be rather powerful for construction both general models of the whole company, and its detailed descriptions.
Model of business is the major initial information for the SDMS development, for supporting the business processes (BPR) in the company. It is impossible to create model of business of the company without the simultaneous development of supporting information system. Thus, all known approaches to modeling of business belong to one family of methods of information complex systems modeling. Let's show the most known approaches /1,2, 3/.
1)SA/SD (Structured Analysis and Structured Design).
2) Technique IDEF (Integrated computer manufacturing DEFinition).
3) Technique SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique).
All these techniques are based on the information systems modeling, which brooks systems into components, each of which is examined separately from the others. The main lack of a similar method is the consecutive performance of stages, that results to the large losses of time and are not coordinated with the interactive character of the program system development.
4) Object focused approach (OFA). Its main feature is that there is no strict sequence of performance of the separate stages. The efficiency of the analysis and designing techniques at the OFA has decisive importance for the projects destiny. But besides all the OFA advantages it is necessary to emphasize, that it is eligible for the programmers, not for the managers. This problem can be solved with the integration of modem technologies implementation.
5) Integrated approaches to the models development: which join the knowledge engineering, OFA, CASE-technologies, simulation modeling of processes, and "active" diagram. Now only the OFA allows to describe both data about the subjects, and their behavior. However models created according to this methodology, are rather difficult, and probably the managers of the companies could work with them as naturally and easily, as the professionals in area Information Technologies.
CASE technologies are focused on the tasks of the tool means developers. Now they are begun to unite with the other modem technologies, first of all with the object focused technologies.
The simulation modeling provides the deepest representation of models for the users, which don't have any programmers skills. And also such modeling is the most complete means of the models analysis. The models are created as the streams diagrams, in which the basic working procedures in the company and their behavior are submitted, and also information and material flows between them is described. However construction of real imitation models is the rather hard working process, and their detailed analysis frequently requires of the special knowledge and training of their users.
These problems are overcome with the help of knowledge engineering methods /1,3/. Due to them it is possible directly to represent in models poorly formalized knowledge of the managers about the business processes, in particular about the working procedures. Besides this the problem of creation of the intellectual interface for the final user with the complex means of the models analysis is solved.
In cases, when for modeling complex objects the application of exact methods is impossible or is connected to huge expenses of time and resources it is useful to apply the approached methods of modeling based on indistinct (continuous-valued) logic. They most frequently are applied in systems of support of the decisions making, and also in expert systems for an estimation of parameters of complex objects.
In such situation on the foreground not an establishment of analytical connections between parameters acts, but accounting of reason consequence dependencies between separate parameters and their sets. The tasks which have been mentioned above are the poorly formalized tasks, as they are extremely complex and contain a plenty of parameters. As usual such tasks are named as tasks with the indistinct initial information. To revealing of reason consequence dependencies between the parameters the logic methods are applied. It is obvious, that of discrete logic supposing complete definiteness of the information could not be used to the full.
Now among formal issues, constructed by the various authors, unique device adequate to specified requirements, is the logic of contrasts - Antonyms logic. On the basis of Antonyms logic the technique of complex estimations for the characteristic of complex systems is developed.
This method of the tasks solution allows to carry out the diagnostics of researched object, to solve the tasks of management. Important fact is that the models created on the basis of Antonyms logic differ by the good presentation and reflect a course of the expert reasoning, formalize his knowledge.
Now the integrated multifunctional means uniting in various modem technologies begin to occur /I, 4/. The success of the concrete project in the reengineering field in many respects is predetermined by tool means used for its realization. These tools is possible to divide into 5 categories/I, 5/:
•Means of the diagrams creation and the low level toolkit (Micrografx: ABC Flowcharter; Scitor; Process Charter; High Performance Systems: iThink).
•Means of description of the work flows (Action Technologies: ActionWorkflow Analyzer; Viewstar: Process Architect).
•Means of the simulation modeling / animation (CASI: Modsim; System Modeling: Arena; ProModel: ProModel; Gensym: ReThink).
•CASE object focused toolkits and means of the fast development of the implementations (Ptech: Framework, Oracle: Designer2000; Popkin: System Architect).
•The integrated multifunctional means, automated the basic stages of the BPr realization (Coopers and Lybrand: SPARKS; Meta Software: Workflow Analyzer; Protosoft Inc.: Paradigm; Interfasing Technologies: FirstStep; Texas Instruments Inc.: BDF; Gensym: ReThink + G2).
Now there is a number of the most popular tool means used for realization of the reengineering. Some of these means (for example, ReThink and Arena) are focused on the businessmen tasks and can be used by them without intermediary of the experts in the IT area. ReThink is an object focused means of graphic modeling and the business processes designing. It offers the graphic environment for testing of the models, and also for definition the various parameters of process, such as time, cost etc. It allows to dynamically change the image of simulated processes, that provides presentation and clearness of processes having any complexity.
The system ReThink is constructed on the basis of complex G2 /4, 5 /, thus it is the problem- oriented implementation of a complex G2, which allows the developers to use not only specialized means of the business processes modeling, but also universal remedies of a complex of creation of intellectual object focused control systems in the real time.
For representation of the business processes models the diagrams consisting of blocks and connections are used. The blocks represent tasks of business processes, and connection - flows of subjects: the documents, information, and also subjects appearing in business (for example, spare parts or packing of production for realization). In system a number of standard blocks is realized which can be used as assembly elements for construction of working models of any processes, for example, source of the applications, the decision making, processing of the task. The properties and behavior of blocks can be described as exact sizes, as exact ones. In case of necessity the developer can redefine behavior of the blocks or to set their new classes with the help of the base means of a complex G2.
Object orientation of the ReThink system allows to create clear and evident models of the business processes, that essentially simplifies development and use of system by the users which have no programmers skills. The objects constructed as a result of the business - processes modeling are a natural basis for designing of the information systems of these processes support. In this sense of a means of the ReThink system can be considered as the development of the CASE means. ReThink supports the animation of the works flows during the modeling of the company activity. Due to this the manager has an opportunity directly to observe the models functioning, that raises a degree of his trust to results of modeling.
ReThink supports creation of hierarchical models allowing to describe processes with a various degree detailed elaboration. It provides simplicity and naturalness at the creation of complex models of the large companies. All elements of models, including resources of the processes, can be modified directly during the performance. The results of changes could be seen at once after their introduction.
ReThink allows to form the cost and temporary characteristics of the various projects for their objective comparison, and also to check hypotheses " That, if ". The special interest represents the creation of the problem-oriented bases of knowledge about the typical business processes.
The basic advantage of this system for the Russian users is the opportunity of its application as the integrating component allowing at the expense of an openness of interfaces and support of a wide spectrum of computing platforms easy to unite already existing, isolated means of automation in a uniform complex control system covering all aspects of industrial activity - from formation of a portofolio of the orders up to management with technological processes and shipment of ready production.
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